Meeting on the sidelines of the Group of 20 summit in Hamburg, Germany, Abe and Xi are also likely to discuss steps to improve bilateral relations, especially as this year marks the 45th anniversary of the normalization of diplomatic ties.
Speaking to reporters later on Air Force One, U.S. Treasury Secretary Steven Mnuchin said the Trump-Xi meeting lasted over an hour-and-a-half, and they had "substantive discussions" about how to deal with North Korea together.
The Trump administration has been expressing frustration over Beijing's perceived lack of action to cut off trade with Pyongyang.
Xi stressed the importance of talks with North Korea, and said China's navy will join next year's US -led Pacific Rim military exercises.
Even the leaders of China and Russian Federation, surely not the United States' best friends, seem to have recognized that North Korean dictator Kim Jong-un is pushing his luck in his military buildup. It has downgraded China's human trafficking status and blacklisted the Bank of Dandong as a "primary money laundering concern" in June.
North Korea's successful test launch of an ICBM was a major milestone in its long-term effort to build a missile that could carry a nuclear warhead to attack the United States.
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Mr Abe noted that the security situation in the Asia Pacific region has become "increasingly severe" due to North Korea's push to develop its ballistic missile and nuclear programme.
Xi told Trump that stronger China-U.S. ties are conducive to stability and prosperity and serve the interests of both peoples and the global community in a complex world where various conflicts emerge. He stressed that he wants Japan to work with the United States to "demonstrate the robust partnership" that the two countries have.
Trump also mentioned trade imbalances in his meeting with Xi, calling it a "very, very big issue" that he would address.
Meanwhile, Trump requested his Japanese counterpart to further open its market for American exports as part of an effort to reduce United States deficit, a Japanese official said according to Nikkei Asian Review.
"I know that China in particular, which is a great trading partner, we will be able to do something that will be equitable and reciprocal", Trump said.